Mexican Colonized History, 1821-1993

A Brief and Partial Chronology of Texas


Researched, compiled & edited by Mario Longoria, Ph.D.

–1951. In July, the U.S. Congress enacts Public Law 78, formally titled the “Bracero Program,” which becomes a major element in the agriculture of Texas,

California, New Mexico, Arizona, Arkansas, and a minor JERCIANTS of LABOR one in 20 other states. Interestingly, the states of Texas The Madcom Bracco Story and California account for almost three-fourths of the total braceros brought into the U.S.

–1954. In the landmark case of “Hernandez vs. Texas”, the U.S. Supreme Court recognized Mexican Americans as a separate class of people suffering profound discrimination in Texas. The court ruled that Pete Hernandez, who was convicted of murder, was denied

equal protection under the law because the jury selection process in Jackson County, Texas excluded Mexican Americans from jury service for the previous 25 years.

Mexican American attorney Gus Garcia’s eloquent argument before the

Supreme Court of the U.S was allowed an additional 16 minutes that resulted in the case’s reversal. Interestingly, the case was heard by the Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall who a few days later argued another equally important Civil Rights case of “Brown versus Board of Education.”

–“Operation Wetback” begins in 1954 and continues into the 1960’s. In the first year of operation over 1.2 million Mexican illegals and some U.S. citizens are deported back to Mexico.

–1957. The first Civil Rights Act is passed by the U.S. Congress.

–Texas State Senators Henry B. Gonzalez from San Antonio and Abraham “Chic” Kazan from Laredo, Texas filibustered the passage of 5 segregation Bills in the State Senate for 37 hours. When all was said and done, only one Bill passed.

–In Hernandez vs. Driscoll Consolidated Independent School District, the Texas court held that abusing the language deficiency of Mexican American

children and grouping them in separate schools is “unreasonable race discrimination.”

–1962. Brackenridge High School football team of San Antonio, Texas captured the State Class AAAA High School Football Championship. The team comprised of purely Mexican and Black players beat predominately rich and powerful Anglo schools. It is the first and only time in Texas School Boy Football History a diverse Mexican and Black team captured the Texas Schoolboy 16-AAAA Football State Championship.